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Online Contract in India : Feature and Formation

Updated: Apr 21

The digital era has transformed how contracts are formed and executed. The Indian legal system, guided by the Indian Contract Act, 1872, and the Information Technology Act, 2000, has evolved to accommodate online contracts, ensuring their validity and enforceability. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the legal framework governing online contracts in India, highlighting key provisions, case laws, and the parallelism with offline contracts.

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Online contract in India

The Essence of Contract Formation

Under the Indian Contract Act, 1872, the formation of a contract is a process involving a proposal and its acceptance, leading to a promise. When this promise is supported by consideration, it becomes an agreement. An agreement that is enforceable by law is termed a contract.

This fundamental concept remains unchanged in the realm of online contracts, where the exchange of proposals and acceptances occurs digitally.

Pre-requisites of a Valid Online Contract

A valid contract including online contrat in India, as outlined in sections 2(a), 2(b), 2(d), 13-22, 11, 12, 23-25 of the Indian Contract Act, requires:

  • A clear offer or proposal and its acceptance.

  • Consideration for the promise.

  • Free consent of the parties.

  • Competency of the parties to contract.

  • A lawful object.

  • Consensus ad idem, ensuring no ambiguity and mutual agreement.

Formation of Offline and Online Contracts

The communication of proposals and acceptances forms the backbone of contract formation. Section 4 of the Indian Contract Act specifies that a proposal is complete when it comes to the knowledge of the person it is made to. Acceptance is complete against the proposer when it is transmitted out of the acceptor's power, and against the acceptor when it comes to the proposer's knowledge. This principle applies to both offline and online contracts.

The Postal Rule and Instantaneous Communication Rule

The Postal Rule, relevant for offline contracts, posits that acceptance is complete when the letter of acceptance is posted.

This principle was affirmed in cases like 'Entores Ltd. v. Miles Far Eastern Corporation' and 'Bhagwandas Goverdhandas Kedia v. Girdharilal Parshottamdas and Co.', which also established the Instantaneous Communication Rule for telephone or telex communications. These principles, by analogy, apply to online communications, where emails and electronic messages are involved.

The Information Technology Act, 2000 and Online Contract

Attribution of Electronic Records (Section 11)

This section clarifies when an electronic record can be attributed to its originator. It states that a record is considered to be sent by the originator if:

  1. It is sent by the originator themselves.

  2. It is sent by a person authorized by the originator.

  3. It is sent by an information system programmed to operate automatically on the originator’s behalf.

The emphasis on performance specificity in these conditions ensures clarity and accountability in electronic transactions and Online Contract in India

Acknowledgement of Receipt of Electronic Records (Section 12)

Acknowledgment of receipt is a key aspect in electronic communication, as it confirms the receipt of a message but does not equate to its acceptance. The Act outlines scenarios regarding acknowledgments:

  1. General Acknowledgement (Section 12(1)): This clause applies when there is no pre-agreed method of acknowledgment between the originator and addressee. Here, any form of communication or conduct that sufficiently indicates the receipt of the record is acceptable.

  2. Specified Acknowledgment (Section 12(2)): In cases where the originator has specified a particular mode of acknowledgment, the electronic record is not binding unless the acknowledgment is received as specified.

  3. Non-Receipt of Acknowledgment (Section 12(3)): If the originator does not receive the acknowledgment, they may notify the addressee and set a reasonable time frame for receiving it.

Dispatch and Receipt of Electronic Records (Section 13)

This section addresses the determination of the time and place of dispatch and receipt of electronic records, which are crucial for establishing when and where a contract is formed.

  1. Dispatch of Electronic Records (Section 13(1)): An electronic record is considered dispatched when it leaves the control of the originator and enters a computer resource outside their control.

  2. Receipt of Electronic Records (Section 13(2)): The receipt of an electronic record occurs when it enters the designated computer resource of the addressee or, if sent to a non-designated resource, when it is retrieved by the addressee.

  3. Place of Business (Section 13(3)): An electronic record is deemed dispatched from and received at the respective places of business of the originator and addressee. This is significant in determining jurisdiction and cause of action in disputes.

  4. Multiple Places of Business or Residence (Section 13(5)): The principal place of business is considered for entities with multiple business locations, while for individuals without a business, their usual place of residence is considered.

  5. Irrelevance of Computer Resource Location (Section 13(4)): The physical location of the computer resource used in the communication does not impact the applicability of these rules.

online contract formation in india

The Functional Equivalent Approach of Online Contract in India

The IT Act incorporates the UNCITRAL Model Law of E-commerce principles, ensuring functional equivalence between paper-based and electronic communications. This includes the equivalence of electronic writings and digital signatures.

Functional Equivalent Parameters

Functional Parameters

Physical Communications

Online Communications

Writing Requirement


Electronic records

Signature Requirement


Digital Signature

1.The Basis of Functional Equivalence

The Functional Equivalent Approach is designed to provide electronic records and communications the same legal standing as their paper-based counterparts. It operates on the principle of "functional equivalence," which is centered around the idea that electronic forms of communication should fulfill the same functions as traditional paper-based methods. This approach is not about replicating the physical characteristics of paper but rather about ensuring that electronic methods effectively serve the same legal purposes.

2. Implementation in the Information Technology Act

Sections 11-13 of the Information Technology Act incorporate this approach, addressing the key aspects of electronic communication such as attribution, acknowledgment, dispatch, and receipt. These sections are aligned with the principles laid down in the UNCITRAL Model Law, ensuring that electronic records are treated on par with written records in legal contexts.

3. Equivalence of Writing

One of the critical aspects of this approach is the equivalence of writing. Article 6(1) of the UNCITRAL Model Law stipulates that where the law requires information to be in writing, this requirement is satisfied by an electronic record if the information it contains is accessible for future reference. This principle is essential in the legal recognition of electronic documents, as it ensures that the content of these documents is preserved and accessible in a manner equivalent to written documents.

Functional Equivalence of a Signature

Beyond the equivalence of writing, the Model Law and the Information Technology Act also recognize the functional equivalence of signatures. In the digital context, this is achieved through cryptographic means, commonly known as digital or electronic signatures. These signatures provide a secure method of signing electronic documents, ensuring the authenticity and integrity of the signed document. The digital signature serves the same legal purposes as a handwritten signature, including verification of the signer's identity and their consent to the contents of the document.

Digital Signatures in Online Communications

Digital signatures play a crucial role in authenticating, ensuring integrity, and non-repudiation in online communications. The IT Act recognizes both symmetric and asymmetric cryptography, emphasizing the complete verification process of digital signatures. Key Requirements for Online Communications

  1. Authenticity: The recipient must be able to verify the true identity of the sender.

  2. Integrity: The recipient needs assurance that the message has not been altered during transmission.

  3. Non-repudiation: It must be impossible for the sender to deny sending the message or its contents.

Role of Digital Signatures

The use of digital signatures in online communications plays a crucial role in ensuring the legality and security of digital transactions. Digital signatures provide a technological solution for meeting the essential legal requirements of authenticity, integrity, and non-repudiation in electronic communications.

Digital signatures fulfill these requirements using cryptography, a method of secure communication:

  1. Cryptography Types:

  • Symmetric Cryptography: Involves a single key for both encryption and decryption.

  • Asymmetric Cryptography: Uses a pair of keys, a public key for encryption and a private key for decryption.

  1. Process of Digital Signature:

  2. Creation (Section 3 of IT Act): The signer uses their private key to encrypt the electronic record, creating a digital signature.

  3. Verification (Section 2(1)(ta) of IT Act): Upon receipt, the recipient uses the signer’s public key to decrypt and verify the digital signature.

  4. Completion: The signature is considered complete and valid only after successful verification by the recipient.

Assurance Provided by Digital Signatures

  1. Trust in Online Environment: Digital signatures, as recognized under Section 3 of the IT Act, create a trust framework online by reliably identifying the sender and confirming their approval of the content.

  2. Security Against Alteration: Any alteration in the content post-signing is detectable, ensuring the integrity of the electronic record (supported by Sections 1(4) and 43A of IT Act).

  3. Legal Functions: Digital signatures perform essential legal functions akin to a traditional signature (as per Section 5 of IT Act), confirming consent and approval of the document content.


The legal framework governing online contracts in India, shaped by the Indian Contract Act, 1872, and the Information Technology Act, 2000, ensures that online contracts are as valid and enforceable as their offline counterparts. The statutes provide comprehensive guidelines for the formation, communication, and authentication of online contracts, adapting traditional principles to the digital age. By recognizing electronic records and signatures, the law facilitates secure and efficient online contract formation, essential for the digital economy's growth.

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