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Right to Vote In India

Updated: Feb 24

In India, the right to vote is a subject of ongoing debate regarding its constitutional status. While not explicitly stated as a fundamental right in the Indian Constitution, it holds significant importance in the democratic process.


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Right to Vote in India

Constitutional Reference: Article 326

The right to vote in India, while crucial for a democratic setup, is not explicitly mentioned as a fundamental right in the Indian Constitution. Instead, it is indirectly recognized through Article 326, which talks about elections to the House of the People and the State legislative assemblies based on adult suffrage.


This article states that every Indian citizen above 18, unless disqualified by the Constitution or law due to reasons like non-residence, unsoundness of mind, crime, or illegal practices, is eligible to be registered as a voter. This provision implies that the right to vote is derived from the Constitution, although it's not listed under fundamental rights.


Representation of the People Act, 1951 (RP Act)

The RP Act, particularly Section 62, details the right to vote but focuses more on limitations and disqualifications.

  • It reinforces the notion that the right to vote is more implicit than expressly stated in the Constitution.

  • This Act is essential in governing electoral processes in India, indicating that the right to vote, while constitutional in origin, is extensively shaped and controlled by statute.


Key Legal Cases and Interpretations


NP Ponnuswami Case: The Supreme Court clarified that the right to vote or stand in elections isn't a civil right but is derived from laws like the RP Act. This case marked the beginning of interpreting the right to vote as a statutory, not a constitutional right. The Supreme Court delineated the right to vote and participate in elections as a statutory right, not a civil or fundamental right, governed by the limitations of specific laws.

The Court's decision established that the right to vote is subject to the limitations and conditions set out in these laws.

Jumuna Prasad Mukhariya Case: This case reinforced the idea that voting rights are created by statute and have no direct connection to fundamental rights.


Jyoti Basu Case: The Supreme Court acknowledged the paradox where voting, crucial to democracy, is neither a fundamental nor a common law right. It emphasized that election-related rights are governed entirely by statutes like the RP Act.

While acknowledging that voting is essential to the democratic fabric of the nation, the Court categorically stated that this right is neither a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution nor a right recognized by common law. It reiterated that the right to vote is purely a creation of statute, subject to the limitations and conditions set by the legislature.


People’s Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) Case: This case marked a shift in perspective. The court debated the nature of the right to vote, with one judge suggesting it's a constitutional right shaped by statutory law, while others viewed it as purely statutory. Reddi J., suggesting the right to vote as a constitutional right, though shaped by statute. However, the opinion was not unanimous, leading to an ambiguous position on whether the right to vote is constitutional, statutory, or both.

This view suggested a more robust constitutional protection for the right to vote than previously acknowledged. However, this perspective was not unanimously accepted by the other judges, resulting in an ongoing ambiguity about the precise legal nature of the right to vote - whether it is solely a statutory right or has a constitutional basis as well.


Kuldip Nayar Case: This case didn't fully recognize the right to vote as a constitutional right, continuing the ambiguity in legal interpretations.


Implications of the Right to Vote In India

Two significant implications stem from the debate on voting rights:

  1. Right to Know the Candidate’s Background: This is linked to the right to vote, emphasizing the importance of informed voting. The Supreme Court directed the Election Commission to require candidates to disclose information like criminal charges, assets, liabilities, and educational qualifications. (Association of Democratic Reforms v. Union of India)

  2. None-of-the-Above (NOTA) Option: The Supreme Court’s decision to include the NOTA option in electronic voting machines illustrates an aspect of voting freedom. This decision, while distinguishing between the 'right to vote' and 'freedom of voting', has faced criticism for its vague differentiation.


The Paradox in Democracy

Democracy is a fundamental part of India's Constitution and cannot be altered or removed. Interestingly, the right to vote, which is essential for democracy, has not been officially recognized as a constitutional right in India. This distinction is important because it affects how easily the rules about who can vote can be changed.


There's a noticeable inconsistency in how the Indian Constitution treats this issue: democracy is protected as a key element of the Constitution, the Election Commission, which organizes elections, has a constitutional role as per Article 324, and courts cannot interfere with elections as stated in Article 329.


Despite all this, the act of voting itself is not given the same level of importance in legal terms. The Supreme Court has acknowledged this inconsistency but has not taken steps to change it.

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